Measure Abbreviation
Data Collection Method

This measure is calculated based on data extracted from the electronic medical record combined with administrative data sources such as professional fee and discharge diagnoses data.  This measure is explicitly not based on provider self-attestation.

Measure Type

Percentage of cases that active warming was administered by the anesthesia provider.

Measure Time Period

Anesthesia Start to Patient Extubated


Cases with general or neuraxial anesthetic technique.

  • ASA 5 and 6 cases
  • Diagnostic Procedures (CPT: 01922)
  • Obstetric Non-Operative Procedures (CPT: 01958)
  • Labor Epidurals (as determined by the MPOG 'Obstetric Anesthesia Type' Phenotype results 'Labor Epidural' and 'Conversion (Labor Epidural Portion)')
  • MRI Rooms (Rooms tagged as Radiology-MRI)
  • MRI with procedure text:
    • MRI
    • MR Head
    • MR Brain
    • MR Chest
    • MR Torso
    • MR Abdomen
    • MR Lumbar
    • MR Spine
    • MR Knee
    • MR Femur
    • MR Abdomen
  • Cases less than 60 minutes between Case Start and Case End.
    • Algorithm for determining Case Length:
      • Case Start
      1. Anesthesia Induction End.  If not available, then
      2. Anesthesia Induction Begin.  If not available, then
      3. Procedure Start. If not available, then
      4. Patient in Room.  If not available, then
      5. Anesthesia Start
      • Case End
      1. Patient Extubated.  If not available, then
      2. Procedure End.  If not available, then
      3. Patient Out of Room.  If not available, then
      4. Anesthesia End
  • Cases where the ‘Measure End Time’ precedes ‘Measure Start Time’ will be excluded and marked 'invalid'
  • Cases with documentation of an active warming device applied OR
  • Cases with at least one temperature greater than or equal to 36.0°C within the 30 minutes before case end.
    • Case End
    1. Patient Extubated.  If not available, then
    2. Procedure End.  If not available, then
    3. Patient Out of Room.  If not available, then
    4. Anesthesia End
  • Other considerations:
    • For patients undergoing cesarean section fluid warmer is accepted as an active warming device.
      • These cases are determined by the MPOG Obstetric Anesthesia Type Phenotype. Included results:
        • 'Conversion (Cesarean Delivery and Labor Epidural Combined)'
        • 'Cesarean Delivery'
        • 'Conversion (Cesarean Delivery Portion)'
Other Measure Build Details
  • Artifact algorithm:
    • Less than 32.0°C (89.6F)
    • Greater than 40.0°C (104.0F)
    • Any minute-to-minute jumps >0.5°C equivalent. 
      • Example: 0.125°C /15s, 0.25°C / 30s, 1°C / 2mins
    • Conversion from F to C:    F=32 +9/5 (°C)
  • If temperature site not present in physiologic concept, refer to intraop notes.
  • This measure uses the WarmingMethodClasification and WarmingMethodNotes phenotypes, which are not time bound

The active warming (TEMP 01) measure will identify the percentage of cases in which an active warming device was applied between Case Start and Case End or the patient maintained a temperature above 36.0°C without active warming. In the event that active warming was not performed or documented, the case will meet the measure requirements if at least one temperature is greater than or equal to 36.0°C within 30 minutes of Case End.

Active Warming includes:

  • Convective warming: forced air
  • Conductive warming: circulating water mattress, resistive heating electrical blankets
  • Endovascular warming, using a heat exchanging catheter (very rarely used)
  • Radiant heaters

Passive Warming interventions (NOT active warming):

  • Increasing ambient room temperature
  • Thermal insulators such as blankets
  • Fluid warmer (except for cesarean section)
Responsible Provider

Provider present at induction end.

MPOG Concept IDs Required

Temperature MPOG Concept IDs

Case Time MPOG Concept IDs


Temp 1- Unspecified Site


AACD Anesthesia Start Date/Time


Temp 2- Unspecified Site


AACD Patient in Room Date/Time


Temp 1- Monitoring Site


AACD Induction Start Date/Time


Temp 2- Monitoring Site


AACD Induction End Date/Time


Temperature- Temporal Artery


AACD Procedure Start Date/Time


Temperature- Skin


AACD Procedure Finish Date/Time


Temperature- Esophageal


AACD Patient out of room Date/Time


Temperature- Blood


AACD Anesthesia End Date/Time


Temperature- Tympanic

Extubation MPOG Concept IDs


Temperature- Bladder


Intubation Extubated Awake or Deep


Temperature- Nasopharyngeal


Laryngeal Mask Airway removed Deep or Awake


Temperature- Axillary


Emergence- Patient Extubated


Temperature- Rectal



Temperature- Myocardial



Temperature Route



Monitoring- Temperature Probe Placed



Monitoring- Temperature Probe Location/Type


Warming Method Concept IDs



Patient Warming Method- Convective Warmer



Warming Attempts- Warm Room



Warming Attempts- Convective Warmer



Warming Attempts- Warm Blanket



Warming Attempts- Radiant Heaters



Warming Attempts- Fluid Warmer



Warming Attempts- Warmer or blankets location detail


Data Diagnostics Affected
  • Percentage of Cases with a Temperature Observation
  • Percentage of Cases with an Extubation Note
  • Percentage of Cases with Anesthesia Induction End Documented
  • Percentage of General and Neuraxial Cases with Warming Method Specified
Phenotypes Used

General and neuraxial anesthesia causes vasodilation thus redistributing body heat from the core to peripheries.  This redistribution can cause hypothermia.  Core temperatures outside the normal range pose significant risks to patients. Pediatric patients are more likely to develop perioperative hypothermia due to a high surface area to weight ratio and inability to regulate their own temperature.1  Published research has correlated impaired wound healing, adverse cardiac events, altered drug metabolism, and coagulopathies with unplanned perioperative hypothermia. These adverse outcomes resulted in prolonged hospital stays and increased healthcare expenditures.  Active warming techniques provide the best results for reducing cutaneous heat loss and preventing hypothermia.2-7

Risk Adjustment

Not applicable.


1. Carpenter L, Baysinger CL. Maintaining perioperative normothermia in the patient undergoing cesarean delivery. Obstetrical & gynecological survey. 2012;67(7):436-446.

2. Horn EP, Schroeder F, Gottschalk A, et al. Active warming during cesarean delivery. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2002;94(2):409-414, table of contents.

3. Insler SR, Sessler DI. Perioperative thermoregulation and temperature monitoring. Anesthesiology clinics. 2006;24(4):823-837.

4. Kim P, Taghon T, Fetzer M, Tobias JD. Perioperative hypothermia in the pediatric population: a quality improvement project. American journal of medical quality : the official journal of the American College of Medical Quality. 2013;28(5):400-406.

5. Madrid E, Urrutia G, Roque i Figuls M, et al. Active body surface warming systems for preventing complications caused by inadvertent perioperative hypothermia in adults. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2016;4:Cd009016.

6. Sessler DI. Temperature monitoring and perioperative thermoregulation. Anesthesiology. 2008;109(2):318-338.

7. Sun Z, Honar H, Sessler DI, et al. Intraoperative core temperature patterns, transfusion requirement, and hospital duration in patients warmed with forced air. Anesthesiology. 2015;122(2):276-285.