Measure ID

Percentage of cesarean deliveries with documentation of antibiotic administration initiated within one hour before surgery start.

Measure Type
Available for Provider Feedback

Postpartum infections, including endometritis and surgical site infections are common after cesarean deliveries.1 Smaill & Hofmeyr conducted a large meta-analysis reviewing 81 randomized trials including 11,937 women undergoing elective or nonelective cesarean delivery.6 The analysis concluded that antimicrobial prophylaxis was associated with reduction in fever, endometritis, urinary tract infection, SSI, and serious infection.6 Historically, antibiotic prophylaxis was administered after cord clamping during cesarean delivery. However, recent studies suggest that prophylaxis should be administered before surgical incision to decrease the risk of maternal complications with no change in neonatal outcomes.3,5 Further, the antibiotic should be infused before incision in order to achieve peak antimicrobial concentrations in the tissue at the time of incision.1-2 Both the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics support the use of single dose prophylaxis administered within 60 minutes before cesarean delivery to prevent maternal infectious morbidity.4 

Measure Time Period

Non-emergent: 60 minutes prior to Surgical Incision through Surgical Incision.

Emergent cases: 60 minutes prior to Surgical Incision through Anesthesia End.

  • Labor Epidurals (determined by Obstetric Anesthesia Type) including Obstetric non-operative procedures (CPT: 01958).
  • Patients already on scheduled antibiotics or had a documented infection prior to surgery, as specified by Patient on Scheduled Antibiotics/Documented Infection value of the ABX Notes Phenotype.
Success Criteria

Documentation of at least one antibiotic administration within one hour of surgery start. See Other Measure Build Details for emergency cases and antibiotic timing exceptions.

Other Measure Details

Measure Start Time:

  1. 60 minutes before measure end time (see below). For Vancomycin, 120 minutes before measure end time.

Measure End Time:

  1. 50235 Surgical Incision Time (latest if multiple available), if not available then
  2. 50006 AACD Procedure Start Date/Time (latest if multiple available).
  • For cases without a documented surgical incision time or procedure start time, the case will be flagged for review.
  • For cases with more than one Surgical Incision Time (50235) documented, the latest time will be used. If there is no surgical incision time documented, AACD Procedure Start Date/Time (50006) will be used. If there is more than one procedure start time, the latest procedure start time will be used.
  • For emergency cases, Measure End is defined as Anesthesia End.
  • Emergency cases are identified using the Emergency Status phenotype.

Acceptable Antibiotics and Associated Timing:


MPOG Concept

Appropriate Start Time



Within 60 minutes before incision/procedure start through Anesthesia End



Within 60 minutes before incision



Within 60 minutes before incision



Within 60 minutes before incision



Within 60 minutes before incision



Within 60 minutes before incision



Within 60 minutes before incision



Within 60 minutes before incision



Within 60 minutes before incision



Within 60 minutes before incision



Within 120 minutes before incision

*Any of these antibiotics administered within the timeframe will result in success for this measure focused on antibiotic timing, rather than selection.

  • If one of the appropriate antibiotics listed in the table above was given as a bolus in the appropriate time frame, the case will pass and any additional antibiotic infusions will not be considered.
  • If only one antibiotic is administered for the case and is documented with infusion start and end times, the following logic will be applied:
    • If the infusion start time or infusion end time is within 60 minutes before incision (120 minutes for vancomycin), the case will pass. If the infusion is still running at the time of incision, the case will pass.
    • If the infusion started after or at the same time as incision, the case will be flagged as ‘antibiotic administered late’. See last bullet point below for details regarding emergency cases.
    • Exceptions: 
      • If case is emergent, antibiotic can be administed after incision but must be before anesthesia end.
      • If azithromycin is started or ends within 60 minutes before incision through anesthesia end, the case will pass.
    • Cases will be assigned one of the following results:
      • Passed - Antibiotic administered on time
      • Flagged - Prophylactic antibiotic administered (Not documented in MAR)
      • Flagged - Antibiotic not ordered/indicated per surgeon
      • Flagged - Incision/procedure start time documented: No
      • Flagged - Antibiotic administered too late
      • Flagged - Antibiotic administered too early
      • Flagged - Not administered for medical reasons
      • Excluded - Scheduled antibiotics/documented infection
  • Measure will only look for the prophylactic variance note (50181 or 50182) to be documented if an antibiotic is not documented within the measure time frame. 
  • For cases with documentation indicating ‘prophylactic antibiotic administered’ (concept ID: 50181 or 50182 or 50622) but the antibiotic(s) administration with dose, route, and time are not documented in the electronic medication administration record will be flagged for review.
  • Cases will be flagged for review if there is documentation that an antibiotic was not ordered or there is documentation that the antibiotic is ‘not indicated.’

*This measure will include valid MPOG cases defined by the Is Valid Case phenotype.

Risk Adjustment

Not applicable.

Provider Attribution

All anesthesia providers signed in at the time of surgery start. If surgery start time is not documented (50235) then providers signed in at the procedure start time (50006) will be attributed. If procedure start time (50006) is not documented, then providers signed in at anesthesia start (50002) will be attributed. 

MPOG Concept Used

Measure Start Time

  • 50235   Surgical Incision Time
  • 50006   AACD Procedure Date/Time


  • 10048   Azithromycin
  • 10107   Cefazolin
  • 10108   Cefepime
  • 10109   Cefotaxime
  • 10110   Cefotetan
  • 10111   Cefoxitin
  • 10114   Ceftriaxone
  • 10115   Cefuroxime
  • 10202   Gentamicin
  • 10131   Clindamycin
  • 10444   Vancomycin

Exception Documentation

  • 515       Surgical Admission Type - Emergency
  • 50181   Compliance- Prophylactic Antibiotic Variance Note
  • 50182   Compliance- Prophylactic Antibiotic Variance Note Detail
  • 50622   Compliance- Antibiotic Started
  • 70233   Assessment and Plan - ASA Physical Status
  • 70142   Assessment and Plan - Emergent Status
MPOG Phenotypes Used
  1. Bratzler DW, Dellinger EP, Olsen KM, Perl TM, Auwaerter PG, Bolon MK, Fish DN, Napolitano LM, Sawyer RG, Slain D, Steinberg JP, Weinstein RA, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP), Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), Surgical Infection Society (SIS), Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA): Clinical practice guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery. Surg Infect 2013; 14:73–156
  2. Committee on Practice Bulletins-Obstetrics: ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 199: Use of Prophylactic Antibiotics in Labor and Delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2018; 132:e103–19
  3. Costantine MM, Rahman M, Ghulmiyah L, Byers BD, Longo M, Wen T, Hankins GDV, Saade GR: Timing of perioperative antibiotics for cesarean delivery: a metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008; 199:301.e1–6
  4. Guidelines for Perinatal Care Seventh Edition at <>
  5. Mackeen AD, Packard RE, Ota E, Berghella V, Baxter JK: Timing of intravenous prophylactic antibiotics for preventing postpartum infectious morbidity in women undergoing cesarean delivery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014:CD009516
  6. Smaill F, Hofmeyr GJ: Antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean section. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002:CD000933
Measure Authors
 Measure Author  Institution
 Kate Buehler, MS, RN  University of Michigan
 Brook Syzmanski-Bogart, MSN, RN  University of Michigan
 Rachel Kacmar, MD  University of Colorado
 Dan Biggs, MD  University of Oklahoma
 Tom Klumpner, MD  University of Michigan
 Nirav Shah, MD  University of Michigan
 Rob Coleman  University of Michigan
 MPOG Obstetric Subcommittee  



Measure Reviewer(s)
Next Review: 2026
 Date Reviewed  Reviewer  Institution  Summary  QC Vote

 Monica Servin, MD

 Brandon Togioka, MD

 University of Michigan

 Oregon Health & Science University

 Review  Continue as is


Published: 2020
 Date  Criteria  Revision
1/25/2021 Inclusion Include labor epidurals that converted to cesarean delivery (Obstetric Anesthesia Type value code 7)
7/14/2020   Initial Publication