Measure ID

Percentage of cases with glucose > 200 mg/dL with administration of insulin or glucose recheck within 90 minutes of original glucose measurement.

Measure Type

Surgical and anesthetic stress increases hyperglycemia incidence in both diabetics and non-diabetics.3 Perioperative hyperglycemia is mediated by the release of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-alpha and IL-6) and elevated concentrations of catecholamines, growth hormone, glucagon, and glucocorticoids.4 These mediators induce metabolic alterations in carbohydrate balance that alter peripheral glucose uptake and utilization, increase gluconeogenesis, depress glycogenesis, and induce glucose intolerance and insulin resistance.  Hyperglycemia can also be drug induced (administration of steroids).


Acute hyperglycemia in the perioperative period is known to increase the incidence of wound infections, overall mortality, length of stay, acute kidney injury, and delayed wound healing. 2,5,7, 8-12 Use of insulin to correct perioperative hyperglycemia decreases the risk of hospital complications and mortality in cardiac and general surgery patients.6, 12 The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Diabetes Association recommend a treatment threshold of 180 mg/dL in critically ill hospitalized patients and a preprandial blood glucose goal of 140 mg/dL in non-critically hospitalized ill patients.13 Patients undergoing anesthesia who are subject to tight glucose control are at greater risk of hypoglycemia as the effects of anesthesia can mask the symptoms of hypoglycemia and current methods of treatment and monitoring put patients at risk of overcorrection.1 A relatively high threshold glucose level (greater than 200 mg/dL) is used for this measure to alleviate concerns that patients undergoing general anesthetics are at risk of overtreatment and hypoglycemia.1 Blood glucose may be rechecked in one hour.

Measure Time Period
  • All patients with glucose level greater than 200 mg/dL between Anesthesia Start and Anesthesia End
  • Patients with and without diagnosis of diabetes
  • Anesthesia duration ≤ 30 minutes
  • ASA 5 and 6 cases including Organ Harves CPT: 01990
  • Glucose measurements > 200 mg/dL within 90 minutes before Anesthesia End
  • Labor Epidurals including obstetric non-operative procedures (CPT: 01958) & Cesarean Delivery Cases (determined by the Obstetric Anesthesia Type value codes value codes 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7)
  • Outpatient cases with Anesthesia Start to Anesthesia end time less than 4 hours long
  • Patients < 12 years of age.

*Cases where the ‘Measure End Time’ precedes ‘Measure Start Time’ will be excluded and marked 'invalid'

Success Criteria
  • Administration of insulin within 90 minutes (either IV or sub Q routes) or
  • Recheck of glucose level within 90 minutes 
Other Measure Details
  • Evaluate the following conditions for each high glucose between anesthesia start and end. If *none* of the conditions are true for a given high glucose, the case is marked as flagged.
    1. Another glucose value was resulted within 90 minutes of the high glucose = pass
    2. An insulin administration was given within 90 minutes of the high glucose = pass
    3. An insulin infusion is active when the high glucose was resulted = pass (Note: If no end time is available for an insulin infusion, the ‘measure end time’ will be considered the insulin infusion end time.)
    4. Insulin SQ adjustment: Insulin SQ was administered within 120 minutes before high glucose value = pass
  • If two blood glucose levels are documented in the same minute, the lower blood glucose will be considered for this measure
  • Insulin doses sent to MPOG outside the measure time period will be included for evaluation.
Risk Adjustment

Not applicable

Provider Attribution

The provider signed in at the first glucose recheck or first administration of insulin. If neither occurred, then the responsible provider is the one signed in 90 minutes after the high glucose measurement.

MPOG Concept Used


  • 10229    Insulin Aspart
  • 10230    Insulin Glargine
  • 10231    Insulin Novolin
  • 10232    Insulin NPH
  • 10233    Insulin Regular
  • 10659    Insulin- Unspecified


  • 3361       POC- Glucose (Fingerstick)
  • 3362       POC- Glucose (Unspecified Source)
  • 3405       POC- Blood Gas - Glucose
  • 5003       Formal Lab-Glucose, Serum/Plasma
  • 5036       Formal Lab-Blood Gas, Glucose
  1. Akhtar, Shamsuddin, Paul G. Barash, and Silvio E. Inzucchi. 2010. “Scientific Principles and Clinical Implications of Perioperative Glucose Regulation and Control.” Anesthesia and Analgesia 110 (2): 478–97.
  2. Bellusse, Gislaine Cristhina, Julio Cesar Ribeiro, Isabel Cristina Martins de Freitas, and Cristina Maria Galvão. 2019. “Effect of Perioperative Hyperglycemia on Surgical Site Infection in Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study.” American Journal of Infection Control, December.
  3. Duggan, Elizabeth W., Karen Carlson, and Guillermo E. Umpierrez. 2017. “Perioperative Hyperglycemia Management: An Update.” Anesthesiology 126 (3): 547–60.
  4. Esposito, Katherine, Francesco Nappo, Raffaele Marfella, Giovanni Giugliano, Francesco Giugliano, Myriam Ciotola, Lisa Quagliaro, Antonio Ceriello, and Dario Giugliano. 2002. “Inflammatory Cytokine Concentrations Are Acutely Increased by Hyperglycemia in Humans: Role of Oxidative Stress.” Circulation 106 (16): 2067–72.
  5. Frisch, Anna, Prakash Chandra, Dawn Smiley, Limin Peng, Monica Rizzo, Chelsea Gatcliffe, Megan Hudson, et al. 2010. “Prevalence and Clinical Outcome of Hyperglycemia in the Perioperative Period in Noncardiac Surgery.” Diabetes Care 33 (8): 1783–88.
  6. Furnary, Anthony P., Guangqiang Gao, Gary L. Grunkemeier, Yingxing Wu, Kathryn J. Zerr, Stephen O. Bookin, H. Storm Floten, and Albert Starr. 2003. “Continuous Insulin Infusion Reduces Mortality in Patients with Diabetes Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.” The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 125 (5): 1007–21.
  7. Gandhi, Gunjan Y., Gregory A. Nuttall, Martin D. Abel, Charles J. Mullany, Hartzell V. Schaff, Brent A. Williams, Lisa M. Schrader, Robert A. Rizza, and M. Molly McMahon. 2005. “Intraoperative Hyperglycemia and Perioperative Outcomes in Cardiac Surgery Patients.” Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Mayo Clinic 80 (7): 862–66.
  8. Kotagal, Meera, Rebecca G. Symons, Irl B. Hirsch, Guillermo E. Umpierrez, E. Patchen Dellinger, Ellen T. Farrokhi, David R. Flum, and SCOAP-CERTAIN Collaborative. 2015. “Perioperative Hyperglycemia and Risk of Adverse Events among Patients with and without Diabetes.” Annals of Surgery 261 (1): 97–103.
  9. Kwon, Steve, Rachel Thompson, Patchen Dellinger, David Yanez, Ellen Farrohki, and David Flum. 2013. “Importance of Perioperative Glycemic Control in General Surgery: A Report from the Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program.” Annals of Surgery 257 (1): 8–14.
  10. Mendez, Carlos E., Paul J. Der Mesropian, Roy O. Mathew, and Barbara Slawski. 2016. “Hyperglycemia and Acute Kidney Injury During the Perioperative Period.” Current Diabetes Reports 16 (1): 10.
  11. Ramos, Margarita, Zain Khalpey, Stuart Lipsitz, Jill Steinberg, Maria Theresa Panizales, Michael Zinner, and Selwyn O. Rogers. 2008. “Relationship of Perioperative Hyperglycemia and Postoperative Infections in Patients Who Undergo General and Vascular Surgery.” Annals of Surgery 248 (4): 585–91.
  12. Umpierrez, Guillermo E., Scott D. Isaacs, Niloofar Bazargan, Xiangdong You, Leonard M. Thaler, and Abbas E. Kitabchi. 2002. “Hyperglycemia: An Independent Marker of in-Hospital Mortality in Patients with Undiagnosed Diabetes.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 87 (3): 978–82.
  13. Moghissi, Etie S., Mary T. Korytkowski, Monica DiNardo, Daniel Einhorn, Richard Hellman, Irl B. Hirsch, Silvio E. Inzucchi, et al. 2009. “American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Diabetes Association Consensus Statement on Inpatient Glycemic Control.” Diabetes Care 32 (6): 1119–31.
  14. Joshi, Girish P., Frances Chung, Mary Ann Vann, Shireen Ahmad, Tong J. Gan, Daniel T. Goulson, Douglas G. Merrill, Rebecca Twersky, and Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia. 2010. “Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia Consensus Statement on Perioperative Blood Glucose Management in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Ambulatory Surgery.” Anesthesia and Analgesia 111 (6): 1378–87.
Measure Authors
 Measure Author  Institution

 Genevieve Bell

 University of Michigan

 Jamie Osborne, RN

 University of Michigan

 Nirav Shah, MD

 University of Michigan

 Sachin Kheterpal, MD

 University of Michigan

 MPOG Quality Subcommittee



Measure Reviewer(s)


Next Review: 2023
 Date Reviewed  Reviewer   Institution Summary   QC Vote
05/22/2023 Patrick Henson, MD   Vanderbilt

Update the threshold for GLU-01, GLU-03, and GLU-05 to 180mg/dL,

and will develop new recheck measure.

Published Date: 07/2015
 Date  Criteria  Revision
 02/07/2023  Exclusion  Cases with anesthesia duration ≤30 minutes excluded & cesarean hysterectomies no longer excluded.
 02/01/2023  Success  If subcutaneous insulin was administered within 120 minutes before high glucose, value passes.
 03/24/2021  Exclusion  Modified to use Obstetric Anesthesia Type phenotype